Dr. West developed the original version of the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ) in 1983, as a postdoctoral student at Washington University. Since then, she has utilized a number of different versions of the MSEQ, and she developed a spatial memory self-efficacy measure with Duana Welch and a hearing aid self-efficacy questionnaire with Sherri Smith. In recent research, she has been using both the MSEQ-4 (using only four subscales from the original MSEQ) and a General Memory Efficacy measure. If you are interested in obtaining a copy of any of these measures, please contact Dr. West directly. Dr. West has used these measures of self-efficacy extensively in her research.